The Items in the 33 Preliminary IPIP Scales
Measuring Constructs Similar to Those in
Gough's California Psychological Inventory (CPI)

ASSERTIVENESS (CPI: Dominance [Do]) [IPIP Scale Alpha = .80]
+ keyed Express myself easily.
  Try to lead others.
  Automatically take charge.
  Know how to convince others.
  Am the first to act.
  Take control of things.

– keyed Wait for others to lead the way.
  Let others make the decisions.
  Am not highly motivated to succeed.
  Can't come up with new ideas.

COMPLEXITY (Capacity for Status [Cs] [.73]
+ keyed Carry the conversation to a higher level.
  Engage in discussions.
  Am willing to talk about myself.
  Understand people who think differently.
  Enjoy thinking about things.
  Can see different points of view.

– keyed Rarely look for a deeper meaning in things.
  Do not like concerts.
  Am not interested in speculating about things.
  Dislike new foods.

SOCIABILITY (Sociability [Sy]) [.87]
+ keyed Feel comfortable around people.
  Act comfortably with others.
  Am skilled in handling social situations.
  Talk to a lot of different people at parties.
  Start conversations.

– keyed Often feel uncomfortable around others.
  Have little to say.
  Find it difficult to approach others.
  Have difficulty expressing my feelings.
  Only feel comfortable with friends.

ADVENTUROUSNESS (Social Presence [Sp]) [.71]
+ keyed Amuse my friends.
  Believe that I am important.
  Try out new things.
  Am open to change.
  Let myself go.
  Have a lot of fun.

– keyed Seldom joke around.
  Am the last to laugh at a joke.
  Dislike changes.
  Hate surprises.

INSIGHT (Self-Acceptance [Sa]) [.78]
+ keyed Come up with something new.
  Throw a new light on the situation.
  Come up with alternatives.
  Put a new perspective on things.
  Have a vivid imagination.

– keyed Would describe my experiences as somewhat dull.
  Have little to contribute.
  Consider myself an average person.
  Say nothing new.
  Have difficulty imagining things.

SELF-EFFICACY (Independence [In]) [.81]
+ keyed Can handle complex problems.
  Think quickly.
  Formulate ideas clearly.
  Have excellent ideas.
  Am quick to understand things.

– keyed Never challenge things.
  Undertake few things on my own.
  Let others determine my choices.
  Let myself be directed by others.
  Do not have a good imagination.

DEPTH (Empathy [Em]) [.69]
+ keyed Am interested in many things.
  See the humor in situations.
  Make people feel at ease.
  Approach others in a positive manner.
  Want to increase my knowledge.

– keyed Do not like poetry.
  Rarely smile.
  Don't like the idea of change.
  Hide my real intentions.
  Am not easily amused.

RESPONSIBILITY (Responsibility [Re]) [.66]
+ keyed Return extra change when a cashier makes a mistake.
  Try to forgive and forget.
  Like to be of service to others.
  Act according to my conscience.
  Anticipate the needs of others.
  Take others' interests into account.
  Am polite to strangers.
  Am able to cooperate with others.
  Appreciate people who wait on me.

– keyed Try not to think about the needy.

STABILITY (Socialization [So]) [.70]
+ keyed Trust others.

– keyed Do things that others find strange.
  Live in a world of my own.
  Do unexpected things.
  Am hard to understand.
  Make enemies.
  Snap at people.
  Go on binges.
  Get bored easily.
  Get back at others.

SELF-CONTROL (Self-Control [Sc]) [.71]
+ keyed Am not easily affected by my emotions.
  Never spend more than I can afford.
  Experience very few emotional highs and lows.

– keyed Act wild and crazy.
  Demand attention.
  Do crazy things.
  Use flattery to get ahead.
  Make rash decisions.
  Use swear words.
  Make a lot of noise.

TEMPERANCE (Good Impression [Gi]) [.75]
+ keyed Rarely overindulge.
  Easily resist temptations.
  Keep my promises.

– keyed Change my mood a lot.
  Am guided by my moods.
  Am preoccupied with myself.
  Grumble about things.
  Suddenly lose interest.
  Say inappropriate things.
  Love to come up with objections.

OPTIMISM (Well-being [Wb]) [.80]
+ keyed Am not easily bothered by things.
  Enjoy my work.
  Keep my cool.

– keyed Feel desperate.
  Feel short-changed in life.
  See difficulties everywhere.
  Take offense easily.
  Habitually blow my chances.
  Fear for the worst.
  Get caught up in my problems.

TOLERANCE (Tolerance [To]) [.69]
+ keyed Sympathize with the homeless.
  Acknowledge others' accomplishments.

– keyed Am wary of others.
  Distrust people.
  Believe in an eye for an eye.
  Find it hard to forgive others.
  Put down others' proposals.
  Look down on any weakness.
  Treat people as inferiors.

PLANFULNESS (Achievement via Conformance [Ac]) [.62]
+ keyed Stick to my chosen path.
  Look at the facts.
  Follow through with my plans.
  Choose my words with care.
  Follow through on my commitments.

– keyed Feel that my interests change quickly.
  Choose the easy way.
  Don't bother to make an effort.
  Come up with unworkable plans.
  Do not think about decisions.

INTELLECT (Achievement via Independence [Ai]) [.85]
+ keyed Find political discussions interesting.
  Enjoy contemplation.
  Enjoy thought-provoking movies.

– keyed Am not interested in abstract ideas.
  Try to avoid complex people.
  Avoid philosophical discussions.
  Have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.
  Avoid difficult reading material.
  Am not interested in theoretical discussions.
  Prefer to stick with things that I know.

COMPREHENSION (Intellectual Efficiency [Ie]) [.80]
+ keyed Have a rich vocabulary.
  Show a mastery of language.
  Love to read challenging material.
  Like to read.
  Know the answers to many questions.
  Read quickly.

– keyed Have a poor vocabulary.
  Don't understand things.
  Dislike learning.
  Skip difficult words while reading.

COMPETENCE (Psychological-mindedness [Py]) [.74]
+ keyed Come up with good solutions.
  Am full of ideas.
  Know how to apply my knowledge.

– keyed Am easily hurt.
  Feel crushed by setbacks.
  Excel in nothing at all.
  Get confused easily.
  Question my ability to do my work properly.
  Am easily offended.
  Know that I am not a special person.

DISORDER (Flexibility [Fx]) [.80]
+ keyed Leave a mess in my room.
  Am not bothered by messy people.
  Often forget to put things back in their proper place.
  Am not bothered by disorder.

– keyed Want everything to be "just right."
  Love order and regularity.
  Like order.
  Want everything to add up perfectly.
  See that rules are observed.
  Continue until everything is perfect.

SENTIMENTALITY (Femininity [Fe]) [.70]
+ keyed Cry during movies.
  Don't like action movies.
  Dislike competing with others.
  Love flowers.
  Cry easily.
  Suffer from others' sorrows.
  Sympathize with others' feelings.
  Remember my friends' birthdays.

– keyed Do not enjoy watching dance performances.
  Know how things work.
  Don't understand people who get emotional.
  Enjoy games of strategy.

INTROVERSION (Vector 1 [V1]) [.85]
+ keyed Don't like to draw attention to myself.
  Keep in the background.
  Dislike being the center of attention.
  Don't talk a lot.

– keyed Don't mind being the center of attention.
  Take charge.
  Want to be in charge.
  Am the life of the party.
  Can talk others into doing things.
  Seek to influence others.

DUTIFULNESS (Vector 2 [V2]) [.73]
+ keyed Would never cheat on my taxes.
  Do things by the book.
  Do things according to a plan.
  Respect authority.
  Make plans and stick to them.

– keyed Oppose authority.
  Resist authority.
  Act without planning.
  Overuse my credit.
  Spend more money than I have.

GOOD-NATURE (Vector 3 [V3]) [.77]
+ keyed Feel lucky most of the time.

– keyed Get upset easily.
  Believe that people are essentially evil.
  Get irritated easily.
  Am easily disturbed.
  Often express doubts.
  Get fed up easily.
  Get annoyed at the slightest provocation.
  Am put off by unexpected events.
  See other people as my competitors.

HAPPINESS (Managerial Potential [MP]) [.77]
+ keyed Am comfortable in unfamiliar situations.
  Feel at ease with people.
  Love life.
  Am sure of my ground.

– keyed Feel that people have a hard time understanding me.
  Am not sure where my life is going.
  Have a dark outlook on the future.
  Am often down in the dumps.
  Feel attacked by others.
  Become overwhelmed by events.

CALMNESS (Work Orientation [WO]) [.66]
+ keyed Am relaxed most of the time.
  Am not easily frustrated.
  Believe in human goodness.

– keyed Have frequent mood swings.
  Act quickly without thinking.
  Expect things to fail.
  React intensely.
  Look for hidden meanings in things.
  Blurt out whatever comes into my mind.
  Judge myself more harshly than others do.

LIBERALISM (Creative Temperament [CT]) [.85]
+ keyed Believe in the importance of art.
  Tend to vote for liberal political candidates.

– keyed Believe laws should be strictly enforced.
  Tend to vote for conservative political candidates.
  Believe that we should be tough on crime.
  Do not like art.
  Believe that we coddle criminals too much.
  Believe that too much tax money goes to support artists.
  Like to stand during the national anthem.

SECURITY (Leadership [Lp]) [.84]
+ keyed Feel comfortable with myself.
  Seldom feel blue.
  Think highly of myself.
  Carry out my plans.
  Complete tasks successfully.

– keyed Dislike myself.
  Feel that my life lacks direction.
  Often feel blue.
  Am filled with doubts about things.
  Retreat from others.

AMIABILITY (Amicability [Ami]) [.83]
+ keyed Seldom get mad.
  Rarely get irritated.
  Seldom take offense.
  Rarely complain.
  Am not easily annoyed.

– keyed Am often in a bad mood.
  Get angry easily.
  Suspect hidden motives in others.
  Have days when I'm mad at the world.
  Get out of control.

SELF-DISCIPLINE (Law Enforcement Orientation [Leo]) [.75]
+ keyed Like to organize things.
  Am exacting in my work.
  Get to work at once.
  Go straight for the goal.
  Get chores done right away.

– keyed Waste my time.
  Find it difficult to get down to work.
  Do improper things.
  Disregard rules.
  Avoid responsibilities.

POISE (Tough-mindedness [Tm]) [.79]
+ keyed Remain calm under pressure.
  Need things explained only once.
  Handle tasks smoothly.
  Pay attention to details.

– keyed Panic easily.
  Can't make up my mind.
  Feel that I'm unable to deal with things.
  Feel threatened easily.
  Don't know why I do some of the things I do.
  Mess things up.

FORCEFULNESS (Masculinity [B-MS]) [.82]
+ keyed Take the initiative.
  Am not embarrassed easily.
  Am very pleased with myself.
  Readily overcome setbacks.

– keyed Am easily intimidated.
  Am afraid that I will do the wrong thing.
  Am easily discouraged.
  Have a low opinion of myself.
  Am apprehensive about new encounters.
  Give up easily.

TIMIDITY (Femininity [B-FM]) [.77]
+ keyed Would never go hang gliding or bungee jumping.
  Stick to the rules.

– keyed Seek danger.
  Enjoy crude jokes.
  Know how to get around the rules.
  Break rules.
  Play tricks on others.
  Enjoy being reckless.
  Do dangerous things.
  Laugh at others.

DOMINANCE (Narcissism [Nar]) [.82]
+ keyed Try to surpass others' accomplishments.
  Try to outdo others.
  Am quick to correct others.
  Impose my will on others.
  Demand explanations from others.
  Want to control the conversation.
  Am not afraid of providing criticism.
  Challenge others' points of view.
  Lay down the law to others.
  Put people under pressure.

– keyed Hate to seem pushy.

POLITENESS (Social Desirability [D-SD]) [.64]
+ keyed Do a lot in my spare time.
  Respect the opinions of others.

– keyed Am easily put out.
  Do things behind other people's backs.
  Back out at the last moment.
  Get annoyed with others' behaviors.
  Break my promises.
  Cut conversations short.
  Hang up the phone on people.
  Scheme against others.
  Don't put a lot of thought into things.

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