96 Items of the 24 Balanced and Culture-Fair
IPIP-VIA-R Short Scales
Bluemke, Partsch, Saucier, & Lechner, 2021)

(Values in Action [VIA]: Peterson & Seligman, 2004)



Appreciation of Beauty [APP] (rtt = .74/.64; Ω = .69/.75; α = .58/.54)*


+ keyed

Feel it's important to live in a world of beauty.


Experience deep emotions when I see beautiful things.



- keyed

Am rarely aware of the natural beauty in the environment.


Fail to notice beauty until others comment on it.      



Capacity for Love [CAP (new: LOV)] (rtt = .77/.69; Ω = .73/.75; α = .62/.61)*


+ keyed

Know that there are people in my life who care as much for me as for themselves.


Can express love to someone else.



- keyed

Do not easily share my feelings with others.             


Have difficulty accepting love from anyone.



Citizenship/Teamwork [CIT (new: TEA)]  (rtt = .63/.66; Ω = .68./74; α = .54/.57)*


+ keyed

Am an extremely loyal person.          


Support my teammates or fellow group members.                                        



- keyed

Am not good at working with a group.                                 

Prefer to do everything alone.



Curiosity [CUR] (rtt = .80/.64; Ω = .82./.75; α = .72/.56)*


+ keyed

Am excited by many different activities.


Can find something of interest in any situation.                                                                    



- keyed

Am not all that curious about the world.


Have few interests.



Equity/Fairness [EQU] (rtt = .71/.58; Ω = .78/.80; α = .67/.63)*


+ keyed

Treat all people equally.                                                        


Believe that everyone's rights are equally important.                                   



- keyed

Take advantage of others.


Treat others differently if I don't like them.



Forgiveness/Mercy [FOR] (rtt = .75/.54; Ω = .83/.75; α = .71/.56)*


+ keyed

Try to respond with understanding when someone treats me badly.


Allow others to make a fresh start.



- keyed

Hold grudges.


Find it hard to forgive others.a



Gratitude [GRA] (rtt = .67/.65; Ω = .74/.84; α = .61/.63)*


+ keyed

Express my thanks to those who care about me.


Am an extremely grateful person.



- keyed

Feel no gratitude to others.b


Find few things in my life to be grateful for.



Hope/Optimism [HOP] (rtt = .84/.72; Ω = .79/.80; α = .65/.60)*


+ keyed

Can find the positive in what seems negative to others.                   


Remain hopeful despite challenges.



- keyed

Expect the worst.                                                                   


Often think about the possibility of negative outcomes that are not likely to occur.c



Humor/Playfulness [HUM] (rtt = .82/.67; Ω = .83/.79; α = .74/.61)*


+ keyed

Use laughter to brighten the days of others.              


Keep my sense of humor even in gloomy situations.



- keyed

Am not known for my sense of humor.                     


Am not fun to be with.



Industry/Perseverance/Persistence [IND (new: PEV)] (rtt = .77/.53; Ω = .82/.81; α = .73/.63)*


+ keyed

Don't quit a task before it is finished.                        


Finish things despite obstacles in the way.



- keyed

Don't finish what I start.        


Give up easily.           



Integrity/Honesty/Authenticity [INT] (rtt = .77/.68; Ω = .80/.83; α = .65/.67)*



+ keyed

Am trusted to keep secrets.


Keep my promises.                                                                



- keyed

Lie to get myself out of trouble.


Cheat on people who have trusted me.d



Judgment/Open-mindedness [JUD] (rtt = .58/.59; Ω = .67/.75; α = .51/.55)*


+ keyed

Weigh the pro's and the con's.


Am valued by my friends for my good judgment.



- keyed

Don't tend to think things through critically.


Don't think about different possibilities when making decisions.



Kindness/Generosity [KIN] (rtt = .75/.66; Ω = .69/.77; α = .54/.59)*


+ keyed

Am never too busy to help a friend.


Go out of my way to cheer up people who appear down.



- keyed

Get impatient when others talk to me about their problems. 


Am only kind to others if they have been kind to me.



Leadership [LEA] (rtt = .75/.64; Ω = .76/.76; α = .67/.57)*


+ keyed

Am good at helping people work well together.


Am told that I am a strong but fair leader.



- keyed

Have difficulty getting others to work together.                   


Am not good at taking charge of a group.                             



Love of Learning [LOV (new: LER)] (rtt = .71/.53; Ω = .81/.80; α = .62/.55)*


+ keyed

Am a true life-long learner.               


Am thrilled when I learn something new.                             



- keyed

Don't like to learn new things.


Don't read nonfiction books for fun.



Modesty/Humility [MOD] (rtt = .76/.76; Ω = .66/.72; α = .55./54)*


+ keyed

Don't brag about my accomplishments.


Would never be described as arrogant.



- keyed

Like to stand out in a crowd.


Like to talk about myself.      



Originality/Creativity [ORI] (rtt = .79/.72; Ω = .80/.79; α = .71/.62)*


+ keyed

Come up with new ways to do things.           


Am an original thinker.



- keyed

Am not considered to have new and different ideas.


Have no special urge to do something original.



Perspective/Wisdom [PER] (rtt = .70/.73; Ω = .74/.74; α = .60/.56)*


+ keyed

Have a mature view on life.               


Am considered to be a wise person.              



- keyed

Am not good at figuring out what really matters.


Am rarely consulted for advice by others.



Prudence [PRU] (rtt = .76/.76; Ω = .77/.63; α = .63/.45)*


+ keyed

Believe it is always better to be safe than sorry        


Make careful choices.



- keyed

Act before thinking through the consequences.


Like taking risks.


Self-regulation/Self-control [SEL (new: REG)] (rtt = .64/.53; Ω = .57/.68; α = .45/.42)*


+ keyed

Am a highly disciplined person.


Forego things that are bad for me in the long run even if they make me feel good in the short run.



- keyed

Let myself be taken over by urges to spend or eat too much.           


Give in to my urges.



Social/Personal/Emotional Intelligence [SOC (new: SIQ)] (rtt = .66/.69; Ω = .72/.81; α = .56/.63)*


+ keyed

Am good at sensing what others are feeling.                                     


Know what to say to make people feel good.



- keyed

Don't know how to handle myself in a new social situation.


Have trouble guessing how others will react.e



Spirituality/Religiousness [SPI] (rtt = .83/.77; Ω = .81/.73; α = .70/.57)*


+ keyed

Am a spiritual person.


Believe that each person has a purpose in life.          



- keyed

Feel that life has no meaning.f


Do not believe in a universal power or a God.



Valor/Bravery/Courage [VAL] (rtt = .73/.75; Ω = .77/.73; α = .63/.54)*


+ keyed

Have taken frequent stands in the face of strong opposition.


Don't hesitate to express an unpopular opinion.                    



- keyed

Do not stand up for my beliefs.                                 


Don't speak my mind freely when there might be negative results.



Zest/Enthusiasm/Vitality [ZES] (rtt = .82/.72; Ω = .83/.81; α = .71/.62)*


+ keyed

Awaken with a sense of excitement about the day's possibilities.    


Look forward to each new day.                     



- keyed

Am described as grumpy.


Don't have much energy.       



* Note: Values obtained from quality-filtered quota samples in Germany and the U.K. (nGER = 476, nUK = 474) are separated by ‘/’; rtt: test-retest reliability with an interval between 2-3 weeks; Ω: McDonald’s Omega is the appropriate reliability estimate of the factor-loading adjusted linear composite (sum score/mean score), based on fitting CFA models with categorical variables; α: Cronbach’s Alpha is an inappropriate reliability estimate given 1) the typical IPIP response scale (with five options), 2) the type of balanced scales controlling for acquiescence, and 3) the acceptance of merely essentially unidimensional measurement models.


a IPIP variable X210

b IPIP variable Q58

c IPIP variable D47

d IPIP variable Q22

e IPIP variable P405

f IPIP variable Q215



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