List of Examined Items (du Plessis & de Bruin, 2015)


The IPIP VIA items scales are listed for each of the 24 Character Strengths.  As per du Plessis and de Bruin (2015), all items initially examined are listed.  Items removed in the Rasch modelling process are indicated to be (Removed) with a primary reason cited.  Items added to the standard IPIP VIA scale as per the refinement process outlined in du Plessis and de Bruin (2015) are indicated to be (Additional Items).

total numer of items 380


Appreciation of Beauty (Scale 1)


1.     Feel it's important to live in a world of beauty.

2.     Can become tearful thinking of the goodness of others. (Removed – Underfitting)

3.     Experience deep emotions when I see beautiful things.

4.     Have been left speechless by the beauty depicted in a movie.

5.     Appreciate all forms of art.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

6.     Am in awe of simple things in life that others might take for granted.

7.     Crave the experience of great art.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

8.     Fail to notice beauty until others comment on it. (R)

9.     Have not created something of beauty in the last year. (R)

10.  Am rarely aware of the natural beauty in the environment. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)


11.  Feel happy when I see other people display their skills and talents. (Additional Item)

12.  Feel happy when I see other people doing things like showing compassion, forgiving others, or being kind. (Additional Item)

13.  Believe that art is very important. (Additional Item)

14.  See the beauty in everyday things. (Additional Item)

15.  Enjoy the beauty of nature. (Additional Item)

16.  Like learning about the achievements and creations of great men and women from history. (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Gender)



Capacity for Love (Scale 2)


17.  Am willing to take risks to establish a relationship.

18.  Know that there are people in my life who care as much for me as for themselves.

19.  Know that some others accept my shortcomings.

20.  Am the most important person in someone else's life. (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

21.  Can express love to someone else.

22.  Know someone whom I really care about as a person.

23.  Do not easily share my feelings with others. (R) (Removed – Violation of local independence)

24.  Feel isolated from other people. (R)

25.  Have difficulty accepting love from anyone. (R)

26.  Could never stop loving my family and close friends, no matter what they did.


27.  Know someone with whom I feel free to be myself. (Additional Item)

28.  Know that there is someone I trust to help and support me. (Additional Item)

29.  Know someone for whom I would do almost anything. (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

30.  Find that people tell me their feelings. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

31.  Share my feelings with other people. (Additional Item)



1.1.1       Citizenship / Teamwork (Scale 3)


32.  Do not miss group meetings or team practices.

33.  Enjoy being part of a group.

34.  Support my teammates or fellow group members.  (Removed – Overfitting)

35.  Feel I must respect the decisions made by my group.

36.  Am not good at working with a group. (R)

37.  Prefer to do everything alone. (R)

38.  Work best when I am alone. (R)

39.  Keep to myself. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

40.  Do not think it’s important to socialize with others. (R)

41.  Am an extremely loyal person.

42.  Do not talk badly to outsiders about my own group.  (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

43.  Must try to maintain peace within my group.

44.  Lose respect for leaders if I disagree with them.


45.  Like to work as part of a team. (Additional Item)  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

46.  Feel a responsibility to improve the world in which I live. (Additional Item)

47.  Think that everybody should give some of their time and energy to help their town or country. (Additional Item)  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

48.  Others describe me as a good “team player”. (Additional Item)

49.  Take part in community projects to help people who have less than me. (Additional Item).



1.1.2       Curiosity (Scale 4)


50.  Find the world a very interesting place.

51.  Am never bored.

52.  Am always busy with something interesting.

53.  Am excited by many different activities.

54.  Can find something of interest in any situation.

55.  Think that my life is extremely interesting.

56.  Love to hear about other countries and cultures.

57.  Am not all that curious about the world.(R)

58.  Find it difficult to entertain myself. (R)

59.  Have few interests. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)


60.  Will try anything once. (Additional Item)

61.  Love to travel to places that I have never been before. (Additional Item)

62.  Love to try new foods that I have not eaten before. (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

63.  Like movies and books about mysteries. (Additional Item)  (Removed – Underfitting)

64.  Enjoy imagining what life is like for people in other places or who have lives different to mine. (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)



1.1.3       Equity / Fairness (Scale 5)


65.  Admit when I am wrong.

66.  Treat all people equally.

67.  Am a good listener.

68.  Believe that everyone's rights are equally important.

69.  Give everyone a chance.

70.  Am committed to principles of justice and equality.

71.  Believe that everyone should have a say. (Removed – Overfitting)

72.  Refuse to take credit for work I haven’t done.

73.  Take advantage of others. (R)

74.  Treat others differently if I do not like them. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

75.  Know people whose opinions are simply not worth listening to. (R)

76.  Feel like a loser if I compromise. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)


77.  No one deserves to be discriminated against because of the colour of their skin. (Additional Item)

78.  Try to act fairly in all situations. (Additional Item)

79.  Think that everyone should be responsible for their own behaviours. (Additional Item)

80.  Help people even when I do not want to, because it is the right thing to do. (Additional Item)

81.  Think that everyone should get a fair share. (Additional Item)



1.1.4       Forgiveness / Mercy (Scale 6)


82.  Let bygones be bygones.

83.  Never seek vengeance.

84.  Allow others to make a fresh start.

85.  Believe that it is best to forgive and forget.

86.  Do not try to get even.  (Removed – Underfitting)

87.  Hate to see anyone suffer, even my worst enemy.

88.  Try to respond with understanding when someone treats me badly.

89.  Do not give anyone a second chance to hurt me. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

90.  Am unwilling to accept apologies. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

91.  Hold grudges. (R)


92.  When someone hurts my feelings, I am able to get over it very quickly. (Additional Item)

93.  Give people a second chance. (Additional Item) (Removed – Overfitting)

94.  When people make me angry, I am usually able to forgive them. (Additional Item)

95.  Think that it is important to forgive people who have hurt me. (Additional Item)

96.  Go out of my way to help people who are suffering. (Additional Item)

1.1.5       Gratitude (Scale 7)


97.  Express my thanks to those who care about me.

98.  Have been richly blessed in my life.

99.  Stop to count my blessings.  (Removed – Underfitting)

100.        Am an extremely grateful person.

101.        Feel thankful for what I have received in life. (Removed – Overfitting)

102.        Feel a profound sense of appreciation every day.

103.        Get chills when I hear about acts of great generosity.

104.        Do not see the need to acknowledge others who are good to me. (R)

105.        Find few things in my life to be grateful for. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

106.        Do not make a big deal about gifts that I receive. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)


107.        For me, life is much more of a gift than a problem. (Additional Item)

108.        Am thankful for the people who helped me during my childhood. (Additional Item)

109.        Notice when other people do things for me. (Additional Item)

110.        Feel that most bad things that happen have a hidden gift in them. (Additional Item)

111.        Many people helped me to get to where I am today. (Additional Item)

112.        Feel that life is full of many wonderful surprises. (Additional Item)



1.1.6       Hope / Optimism (Scale 8)


113.        Look on the bright side.

114.        Can find the positive in what seems negative to others.

115.        Remain hopeful despite challenges.  (Removed – Overfitting)

116.        Will succeed with the goals I set for myself.

117.        Think about what is good in my life when I feel down.

118.        Can clearly picture in my mind what I want to happen in my future.

119.        Expect the worst. (R)

120.        Have no plan for my life five years from now. (R) (Removed – Violation of independence)

121.        Am not confident that my way of doing things will work out for the best. (R)  (Removed – Underfitting)


122.        Despite challenges, I always remain hopeful about the future. (Additional Item) (Removed – Overfitting)

123.        Feel excited when I think about the future. (Additional Item)

124.        Believe that good will always beat evil. (Additional Item)

125.        Am looking forward to things that are coming in the future. (Additional Item) (Removed – Violation of independence)

126.        I have a plan for what I want to be doing five years from now. (Additional Item)

127.        Believe that I can work hard to achieve a positive future. (Additional Item)



1.1.7       Humour / Playfulness (Scale 9)


128.        Try to tease my friends out of their gloomy moods.

129.        Use laughter to brighten the days of others.

130.        Try to have fun in all kinds of situations.

131.        Try to add some humour to whatever I do.

132.        Keep my sense of humour even in gloomy situations.

133.        Have a great sense of humour.

134.        Believe that life is more of a playground than a battlefield.

135.        Am not known for my sense of humour. (R)

136.        Am not fun to be with. (R)

137.        Do not go out of my way to make others smile or laugh. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)


138.        Most people would say that I am fun to be with. (Additional Item)

139.        Easily find things to laugh or joke about. (Additional Item)

140.        Am good at making jokes. (Additional Item)

141. Think that in difficult situations it is possible to find something to laugh or joke about.

     (Additional Item)

142.        Am good at making people laugh. (Additional Item) (Removed – Violation of local independence)

143.        Think that life does not always have to be serious. (Additional Item)



1.1.8       Industry / Perseverance / Persistence (Scale 10)


144.        Do not quit a task before it is finished.

145.        Am a goal-oriented person.

146.        Finish things despite obstacles in the way.  (Removed – Overfitting)

147.        Am a hard worker.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

148.        Do not get sidetracked when I work.

149.        Only get what I want because I work hard for it.

150.        Make certain that my plans will work.

151.        Do not finish what I start. (R)

152.        Give up easily. (R)

153.        Do not tend to stick with what I decide to do. (R)  (Removed – Underfitting)


154.        Do not give up easily. (Additional Item)

155.        Am able to work hard to solve problems even when it takes a long time.

(Additional Item)

156.        Am able to work hard to achieve results that I will only get at a time far in the future.

      (Additional Item)

157.        Am told by my friends that I am a hard worker. (Additional Item)

158.        When I fail at something, I am willing to try again and again. (Additional Item)

159.        Am good at motivating myself to work hard. (Additional Item)



1.1.9       Integrity / Honesty / Authenticity (Scale 11)


160.        Am trusted to keep secrets.

161.        Keep my promises.

162.        Believe that honesty is the basis for trust.

163.        Can be trusted to keep my promises.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

164.        Am true to my own values.

165.        Take pride in not exaggerating who or what I am.

166.        Am told that I am down to earth.

167.        Lie to get myself out of trouble. (R)

168.        Am hard to understand. (R)

169.        Feel like an imposter. (R)

170.        Like to exaggerate my troubles. (R)

171.        Am told by friends that they do not really know who I am. (R)


172.        Believe that it is more important to be myself than to be popular. (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

173.        Am trusted by other people. (Additional Item) (Removed – Violation of local independence)

174.        Try to always be open and honest about my feelings. (Additional Item)

175.        Say what I think and feel even if I know other people will disagree. (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

176.        Am told by people that I am easy to get to know. (Additional Item)

177.        I try to always tell the truth. (Additional Item)


1.1.10    Judgement / Open-mindedness (Scale 12)


178.        Try to identify the reasons for my actions.

179.        Make decisions only after I have all of the facts.

180.        Am valued by others for my objectivity.

181.        Am a firm believer in thinking things through.

182.        Weigh the pros and the cons.

183.        Try to have good reasons for my important decisions.  (Removed – Overfitting)

184.        Am valued by my friends for my good judgment.

185.        Do not think about different possibilities when making decisions. (R)

186.        Do not tend to think things through critically. (R)

187.        Do not think about more possibilities than the one I like first. (R)


188.        Am approached often by people who want help, advice, or guidance with their

problems. (Additional Item

189.        Think that changing important personal beliefs is often necessary to grow as a

 person. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)



190.        Have friends who have very different beliefs to me.  (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

191.        Prefer to let my feelings decide what I should do when making important decisions.

(R) (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

192.        Take a long time to think before making big decisions. (Additional Item)



1.1.11    Kindness / Generosity (Scale 13)


193.        Am never too busy to help a friend.

194.        Go out of my way to cheer up people who appear down.

195.        Love to make other people happy.

196.        Helped a neighbour in the last month.  (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

197.        Get as excited about the good fortunes of others as I am about my own.

198.        Call my friends when they are sick.

199.        Love to let others share the spotlight. (Removed – DIF for Language Group)

200.        Get impatient when others talk to me about their problems. (R)

201.        Try not to do favours for others. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

202.        Am only kind to others if they have been kind to me. (R)


203.        Behave as if others are just as important as me. (Additional Item)

204.        Believe that giving is more important than receiving. (Additional Item)

205.        Expect others to thank me for generous things that I do for them.

(R) (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

206.        Spend lots of my free time helping others. (Additional Item)

207.        Am asked for favours by my friends and family. (Additional Item)



1.1.12    Leadership (Scale 14)


208.        Try to make sure everyone in a group feels included.

209.        Am good at helping people work well together.  (Removed – Overfitting)

210.        Am told that I am a strong but fair leader.

211.        Try to make my group members happy. 

212.        Treat everyone the same.

213.        Believe that our human nature brings us together to work for common goals.  (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

214.        Believe that leaders should let everyone have a say in what the group does.

215.        Have difficulty getting others to work together. (R)

216.        Am not good at taking charge of a group. (R)

217.        Am not good at planning group activities. (R)


218.        Prefer to take on the leadership role in a group. (Additional Item)

219.        Am able to get other people to act in a certain way. (Additional Item)

220.        Friends and family often ask me to help resolve fights. (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

221.        In emergencies I usually take charge. (Additional Item)

222.        Think that more can always be done if people work together rather than alone.



1.1.13    Love of Learning (Scale 15)


223.        Go out of my way to attend educational events.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

224.        Am thrilled when I learn something new.

225.        Look forward to the opportunity to learn and grow.

226.        Am a true life-long learner.

227.        Read all the time.

228.        Consult the library or the Internet immediately if I want to know something.

229.        Read a large variety of books.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

230.        Do not like to learn new things. (R)

231.        Do not like to visit museums. (R)

232.        Do not read nonfiction books for fun. (R) (Removed – Overfitting)


233.        Get excited when I learn new things. (Additional Item) (Removed – Violation of local independence)

234.        When learning something new it is easy for me to spend a long amount of time

 learning it. (Additional item)  

235.        Like to spend time learning new things that do not have anything to do with my

studies or work. (Additional Item)

236.        My friends and family would say that I am interested in lots of different things.

      (Additional Item)

237.        Like to find out about new and different ideas. (Additional Item) (Removed – Overfitting)



1.1.14    Modesty / Humility (Scale 16)


238.        Am humble about the good things that have happened to me.

239.        Believe that others are drawn to me because I am humble.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

240.        Do not act as if I'm a special person.

241.        Do not brag about my accomplishments.

242.        Am proud that I am an ordinary person.  (Removed – Underfitting)

243.        Do not call attention to myself.

244.        Would never be described as arrogant.

245.        Like to stand out in a crowd. (R)

246.        Like to talk about myself. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

247.        Feel that too much modesty gets a person in trouble. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)


248.        My friends are surprised to find out about things that I have achieved in the past.

      (Additional Item)

249.        Believe that in this world one needs to show their talents and abilities in order to get

opportunities and make progress. (R) (Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

250.        Am an ordinary person with ordinary skills and abilities. (Additional Item) (Removed – Violation of local independence)

251.        There are many things that I do not know much about. (Additional Item) (Removed – Overfitting)

252.        Do not often talk about things that I have achieved. (Additional Item)

253.        Prefer to let my accomplishments speak for themselves. (Additional Item)



1.1.15    Originality / Creativity (Scale 17)


254.        Am able to come up with new and different ideas.  (Removed – Overfitting)

255.        Like to think of new ways to do things.

256.        Come up with new ways to do things.  (Removed – Overfitting)

257.        Am an original thinker.

258.        Have an imagination that stretches beyond that of my friends.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

259.        Tend to think of alternatives when someone tells me how to do something.

260.        Have recently found an original solution to a problem in my life.

261.        Do not pride myself on being original. (R)  (Removed – Underfitting)

262.        Am not considered to have new and different ideas. (R)

263.        Have no special urge to do something original. (R) (Removed – DIF for Gender)


264.        Am told by friends and family that I have good ideas for solving problems.

      (Additional Item)

265.        Have a very good imagination. (Additional Item)

266.        Can think of many different ways to solve problems. (Additional Item)

267.        Am good at thinking of solutions that no-one else thinks of. (Additional Item)

268.        Have new ideas for improving things. (Additional Item)



1.1.16    Perspective / Wisdom (Scale 18)


269.        Have a broad outlook on what is going on.

270.        Have an excellent view of the world.

271.        Have been described as wise beyond my years.

272.        Have a mature view on life.

273.        Consider myself to be a wise person.

274.        Am considered to be a wise person.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

275.        Have never given bad advice to a friend. (Removed – Underfitting)

276.        Lose sight of what is most important in life. (R)

277.        Am not good at figuring out what really matters. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

278.        Am rarely consulted for advice by others. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)


279.        Am asked for advice by friends and family. (Additional Item)

280.        See what the real causes of problems are. (Additional Item)

281.        Am able to see the “big picture”. (Additional Item)

282.        Believe that both feelings and thinking are important in making decisions and solving

problems. (Additional Item)

283.        Am able to understand how other people see problems. (Additional Item)



1.1.17    Prudence (Scale 19)


284.        Have never deliberately hurt anyone.  (Removed – Underfitting)

285.        Cannot imagine lying or cheating.  (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

286.        Believe it is always better to be safe than sorry.

287.        Think before I speak.

288.        Follow the rules.

289.        Avoid activities that are physically dangerous.  (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

290.        Keep straight right from wrong.

291.        Make careful choices.

292.        Behave in unusual and strange ways.(R)

293.        Know that my friends consider me to be impulsive. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

294.        Act before thinking through the consequences. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

295.        Like taking risks. (R)  (Removed – Violation of local independence)


296.        Am careful to consider how things I do now will affect future outcomes.

 (Additional Item)

297.        Do not take many risks. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

298.        Plan for the future. (Additional Item) (Removed – Violation of local independence)

299.        My friends and family are often impressed by my ability to plan for the future.

      (Additional Item)

300.        Am good at setting goals for the future. (Additional Item)





1.1.18    Self-regulation / Self-control (Scale 20)


301.        Have no trouble eating healthy foods.

302.        Am a highly disciplined person.

303.        Forego things that are bad for me in the long run even if they make me feel

good in the short run.  (Removed – Underfitting)

304.        Can stay on a diet.

305.        Can always say "enough is enough."

306.        Can control my emotions.

307.        Feel that practice is as important as performance.

308.        Do not exercise on a regular basis. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

309.        Can't resist eating candy or cookies if they are around. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

310.        Am not very good at getting things done. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity)

311.        Let myself be taken over by urges to spend or eat too much. (R)

312.        Do my tasks only just before they need to be done. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

313.        Give in to my urges. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)


314.        Look after my health by eating well. (Additional Item)

315.        Keep promises that I make to myself. (Additional Item)

316.        When upset I am able to calm myself down quite quickly. (Additional Item)

317.        Friends and family would describe me as a “disciplined person”. (Additional Item) (Removed – Overfitting)

318.        Do not quit easily, even when things are hard. (Additional Item)



1.1.19    Social / Personal / Emotional Intelligence (Scale 21)


319.        Am able to fit into any situation.

320.        Have the ability to make others feel interesting.

321.        Know what makes others tick.

322.        Get along well with people I have just met.

323.        Am good at sensing what others are feeling.

324.        Know what to say to make people feel good.

325.        Am very aware of my surroundings.

326.        Do not know how to handle myself in a new social situation.(R) (Removed – Underfitting)

327.        Get puzzled by my own thoughts and feelings. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

328.        Am taken advantage of by others. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)


329.        Have friends who belong to very different groups of people. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

330.        Can read other peoples’ body language such as facial expressions. (Additional Item)

331.        Am aware of how my feelings are affecting other people. (Additional Item)

332.        Am aware of my feelings. (Additional Item)

333.        Am able to see how other peoples’ emotions can affect their behaviours.

(Additional Item)

334.        Can understand the “rules of the groups” of which I am a member. (Additional Item)



1.1.20    Spirituality / Religiousness (Scale 22)


335.        Believe in a universal power or God. (Removed – Overfitting)

336.        Am a spiritual person.

337.        Keep my faith even during hard times.

338.        Have spent at least 30 minutes in the last 24 hours in prayer or meditation.  (Removed – Underfitting)

339.        Am who I am because of my faith.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

340.        Believe that each person has a purpose in life.

341.        Know that my beliefs make my life important.

342.        Do not practice any religion. (R)

343.        Do not believe in a universal power or a God. (R) (Removed – DIF for Gender)

344.        Know that my life has no strong purpose. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)


345.        Have felt the presence of God / a Higher Power. (Additional Item)

346.        Look to God / a Higher Power for support, guidance, and strength. (Additional Item)

347.        My belief in God / a Higher Power helps me to understand my purpose in life.

(Additional Item) (Removed – DIF for Language Group)

348.        Believe in a life after death. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

349.        Believe that God / a Higher Power acts upon our lives. (Additional Item) (Removed – Violation of local independence)



1.1.21    Valour / Bravery / Courage (Scale 23)


350.        Have taken frequent stands in the face of strong opposition.

351.        Do not hesitate to express an unpopular opinion.

352.        Call for action while others talk.

353.        Can face my fears.

354.        Speak up in protest when I hear someone say mean things.

355.        Am a brave person.  (Removed – Violation of local independence)

356.        Have overcome pain and disappointment.

357.        Avoid dealing with uncomfortable emotions. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

358.        Avoid dealing with awkward situations. (R) (Removed – Underfitting)

359.        Do not stand up for my beliefs. (R)

360.        Do not speak my mind freely when there might be negative results. (R)


361.        Will upset people if I think that it is the right thing to do. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

362.        Can think of a time(s) in my life where I was very brave. (Additional Item)

363.        Have deliberately risked my safety because I thought that it was “the right thing to

do”. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

364.        My friends would describe me as brave. (Additional Item) (Removed – Underfitting)

365.        Am able to do what I should do, even when I feel scared. (Additional Item)



1.1.22    Zest / Enthusiasm / Vitality (Scale 24)


366.        Prefer to participate fully rather than view life from the sidelines.

367.        Do not approach things half-heartedly.  (Removed – DIF for Gender)

368.        Love what I do.

369.        Look forward to each new day.

370.        Can’t wait to get started on a project.

371.        Can hardly wait to see what life has in store for me in the years ahead.  (Removed – Underfitting)

372.        Awaken with a sense of excitement about the day's possibilities.

373.        Dread getting up in the morning. (R) (Removed – DIF for Ethnicity and Language Group)

374.        Do not have much energy. (R)

375.        Am described as grumpy. (R)


376.        Nearly always feel awake and alert. (Additional Item)

377.        Often feel physically fit and mentally alert. (Additional Item)

378.        Friends would describe me as having lots of positive energy. (Additional Item)

379.        Get excited about the things that I am doing. (Additional Item)

380.        Often feel tired. (R) (Additional Item)


IPIP representations of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS), are based on a preliminary version of the VIA-IS provided by Christopher Peterson in June 2001 and described in Peterson and Seligman (2003). The 240 items in the VIA-IS, plus 102 of Peterson’s items that were not included in the VIA-IS, were revised to give them the standard format of IPIP items (short phrases with no leading pronoun).  Since the 2001 version, the VIA Institute on Character has revised the VIA-IS several times; the Institute provides the more recent versions of the VIA-IS to researchers upon request. The Institute's current VIA-IS assessment suite is available at: .
du Plessis, G. A., & de Bruin, G. P. (2015). Using Rasch modelling to examine the international personality item pool (IPIP) values in action (VIA) measure of character strengths. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 25, 512-521.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2003). Character strengths before and after September 11. Psychological Science, 14, 381-384.


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