CAT-Personality Disorder Scales Static Form
(CAT-PD-SF, v1.1, Simms, et al., 2011)

Number of Items and Coefficient Alpha Values

  CAT-PD Full Item Pool CAT-PD Static Form
Scale Name Total IPIP NEW Items Comm α Pat α
Affective Lability 72 37 35 6 .83 .86
Anger 45 27 18 6 .83 .85
Anhedonia 40 19 21 6 .84 .89
Anxiousness 40 21 19 7 .83 .85
Callousness 46 37 9 7 .85 .83
Cognitive Problems 42 12 30 8 .82 .88
Depressiveness 58 23 35 6 .88 .88
Domineering 27 22 5 6 .83 .84
Emotional Detachment 29 24 5 7 .82 .86
Exhibitionism 52 21 31 6 .82 .83
Fantasy Proneness 26 11 15 6 .82 .83
Grandiosity 33 17 16 7 .85 .81
Health Anxiety 33 19 14 7 .84 .84
Hostile Aggression 50 14 36 8 .82 .87
Irresponsibility 44 39 5 7 .82 .85
Manipulativeness 65 31 34 6 .88 .85
Mistrust 54 15 39 6 .83 .88
Non-Perseverance 39 35 4 6 .83 .88
Non-Planfulness 42 36 6 6 .82 .84
Norm Violation 53 22 31 7 .83 .84
Peculiarity 28 11 17 5 .86 .82
Perfectionism 36 25 11 6 .81 .85
Relationship Insecurity 37 2 35 7 .84 .83
Rigidity 23 13 10 10 .77 .80
Risk Taking 52 29 23 5 .84 .84
Romantic Disinterest 30 11 19 6 .83 .89
Rudeness 31 19 12 7 .81 .80
Self Harm 52 1 51 7 .87 .86
Social Withdrawal 54 39 15 6 .83 .87
Submissiveness 44 28 16 6 .81 .85
Unusual Beliefs 25 9 16 7 .83 .84
Unusual Experiences 37 22 15 7 .84 .82
Workaholism 27 21 6 6 .83 .85
Totals 1,366 712 654 216    
M 41.4 21.6 19.8 6.5 .83 .85
SD 12.2 10.2 12.1 0.9 .02 .02

Note. Comm α = Community Sample (N = 1,269) and Pat α = Patient Sample (N = 628). The Full Item Pool refers to the Computerized Adaptive Testing version and the Static Form is a subset of fixed items that are provided in the Scoring Keys.


CAT-PD Scale Descriptions

Affective Lability: This scale measures the tendency to experience strong, rapid, and unpredictable shifts in emotion and mood, to have difficulty coping with both minor and major life stressors, and to act impulsively in the context of negative affect.

Anger: This scale assesses the tendency to experience and express emotions ranging from frustration and irritability to explosive temper and rage.

Anhedonia: This scale evaluates general deficits in positive emotions and energy levels. High scorers report difficulties experiencing joy and excitement, show little interest in things, and exhibit lethargy, lassitude, and psychomotor slowness.

Anxiousness: This scale measures the tendency to be generally tense, prone to worry, fearful, panicky, and to excessively anticipate or avoid situations or stimuli that are perceived as dangerous.

Callousness: This scale reflects cold-heartedness, disregard for the rights, feelings, and welfare of others, and lack of sympathy and empathy.

Cognitive Problems: This scale assesses a range of mental deficits, including memory problems, confusion, disorientation, and illogical/disorganized thoughts.

Depressiveness: This scale rates the tendency to experience feelings of sadness, melancholy, hopelessness, inferiority, shame and guilt, as well as the tendency to hold a generally negative view of oneself, the world, and the future.

Domineering: This scale reflects a general need for power and the tendency to be controlling, dominant, and forceful in interpersonal relationships.

Emotional Detachment: This scale measures the tendency to be emotionally distant and reserved, as well as difficulties in the experience, description, and expression of feelings.

Exhibitionism: This scale assesses the tendency to engage in and derive pleasure from a range of overt attention-seeking behaviors, behave in an overly flamboyant and theatrical manner characterized by exaggerated displays of emotion, and act and dress in sexually provocative ways.

Fantasy Proneness: This scale appraises the tendency to fantasize, daydream, and become fully engrossed in one’s thoughts and experiences, sometimes to the extent of becoming distracted and losing sight of reality.

Grandiosity: This scale measures a mixture of arrogance and entitlement. High scorers believe they are important and superior to others, act in condescending ways, and feel they deserve special treatment and privileges.

Health Anxiety: This scale estimates the tendency to be worried about and preoccupied with one’s own health and possible health problems.

Hostile Aggression: This scale reflects a pattern of hostile and violent behavior that is either instrumental (i.e., instigated by the individual to achieve a specific goal or purpose) or reactive (i.e., in response to some environmental stimulus). In addition, the scale taps the tendency to be resentful, mean-spirited, vindictive, and sadistic.

Irresponsibility: This scale measures the extent to which an individual fails to fulfill responsibilities, requirements, promises, and obligations in relationships and other important life roles (e.g., school, work).

Manipulativeness: This scale assesses a behavioral pattern of taking advantage of and exploiting others in order to achieve self-serving goals, as well as the tendency to lie, cheat, and behave in overtly or covertly dishonest ways.

Mistrust: This scale appraises the tendency to question the honesty, motives, fidelity, loyalty, and believability of others, as well as a general attitude of jaded negativity, especially a general disbelief in the integrity or professed motives of others.

Non-Perseverance: This scale is sensitive to difficulties remaining focused and engaged on tasks that may be perceived as boring, challenging, frustrating, or not enjoyable.

Non-Planfulness: This scale measures the tendency to act on whims or on the spur of the moment without planning or concern for the consequences.

Norm Violation: This scale reflects a general disregard for and active rejection of social rules and convention, a history of engaging in illegal or antisocial acts, and a pattern of disobedient and defiant behavior towards authority figures.

Peculiarity: This scale estimates the extent to which one’s behavior, speech, appearance, and mannerisms are perceived as odd, unusual, or eccentric.

Perfectionism: This scale appraises the belief that any behavior or work—one’s own or that of others—that is anything less than flawless is unacceptable.

Relationship Insecurity: This scale assesses an interpersonal style characterized by interpersonal insecurity, fear of abandonment by significant others, jealousy, and the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and over-react to social rejection or criticism.

Rigidity: This scale reflects an inflexible adherence to one’s personal views, values, morals, and an unwillingness to consider the validity of alternative viewpoints or to change one’s mind.

Risk Taking: This scale measures the tendency to pursue and enjoy activities that are stimulating, thrilling, exhilarating, and potentially dangerous.

Romantic Disinterest: This scale reflects a general lack of interest in, desire for, and enjoyment of sex, eroticism, and interpersonal intimacy.

Rudeness: This scale measures the tendency to be blunt, overly frank, interpersonally insensitive, and tactless in interpersonal communication.

Self Harm: This scale assesses a range of self-injurious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to both non-lethal (e.g., cutting, burning, head-banging, etc.) and lethal (e.g., suicidal ideation, intentions, and acts) means.

Social Withdrawal: This scale estimates avoidance of interpersonal interactions and a preference for being alone that is guided either by interpersonal anxiety or a genuine disinterest in interacting with others.

Submissiveness: This scale evaluates the yielding of power to others, over-accommodation of others’ needs and wishes, exploitation by others, and lack of self-confidence in decision-making, often to the extent that one’s own needs are ignored, minimized, or undermined.

Unusual Beliefs: This scale measures the tendency to hold unfounded and irrational thoughts, beliefs, and ideas about the world, including beliefs about the powers of oneself, others, and objects to control and influence others and the physical world.

Unusual Experiences: This scale reflects a range of unusual experiences, including perceptual distortions that do not correspond to reality as well as dissociation or detachment from reality, one’s surroundings, or oneself.

Workaholism: This scale assesses a general preference for and orientation toward work relative to relationships, relaxation, and other important aspects of life, as well as an excessive focus on achievement, status, and success in life.


Simms, L. J., Goldberg, L. R., Roberts, J. E., Watson, D., Welte, J., & Rotterman, J. H. (2011). Computerized adaptive assessment of personality disorder: Introducing the CAT-PD project. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 380-389.

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