The Items Included in Each of the 24 Revised IPIP-VIA Scales

(Values in Action [VIA]: Peterson & Seligman, 2004)*

Appreciation of Beauty [App] (8 items; Alpha = .77)


+ keyed

Feel it's important to live in a world of beauty.


Can become tearful thinking of the goodness of others.


Experience deep emotions when I see beautiful things.


Have been left speechless by the beauty depicted in a movie.


Appreciate all forms of art.


Am in awe of simple things in life that others might take for granted.


Crave the experience of great art.



- keyed

Fail to notice beauty until others comment on it.

Omitted Have not created something of beauty in the last year.
  Am rarely aware of the natural beauty in the environment.

Capacity for Love [Cap] (9 items; Alpha = .70)


+ keyed Am willing to take risks to establish a relationship.
  Know that there are people in my life who care as much for me as for themselves.
  Know that some others accept my shortcomings.
  Am the most important person in someone else's life.
  Can express love to someone else.
  Know someone whom I really care about as a person.

- keyed

Do not easily share my feelings with others.


Feel isolated from other people.


Have difficulty accepting love from anyone.

Omitted Could never stop loving my family and close friends, no matter what they did.


Citizenship/Teamwork [Cit] (9 items; Alpha = .78)


+ keyed Don't miss group meetings or team practices.
  Enjoy being part of a group.
  Support my teammates or fellow group members.
  Feel I must respect the decisions made by my group.



- keyed Am not good at working with a group.

Prefer to do everything alone.


Work best when I am alone.


Keep to myself.


Donít think itís important to socialize with others.

Omitted Am an extremely loyal person.
  Don't talk badly to outsiders about my own group.
  Must try to maintain harmony within my group.
  Lose respect for leaders if I disagree with them.


Curiosity [Cur] (10 items; Alpha = .78)


+ keyed Find the world a very interesting place.
  Am never bored.
  Am always busy with something interesting.
  Am excited by many different activities.
  Can find something of interest in any situation.
  Think that my life is extremely interesting.


Love to hear about other countries and cultures.



- keyed

Am not all that curious about the world.


Find it difficult to entertain myself.


Have few interests.


Equity/Fairness [Equ] (9 items; Alpha = .70)


+ keyed Admit when I am wrong.
  Treat all people equally.


Am a good listener.

  Believe that everyone's rights are equally important.
  Give everyone a chance.
  Am committed to principles of justice and equality.
  Believe that everyone should have a say.



- keyed

Take advantage of others.


Treat others differently if I don't like them.

Omitted Refuse to take credit for work I havenít done.
  Know people whose opinions are simply not worth listening to.
  Feel like a loser if I compromise.


Forgiveness/Mercy [For] (9 items; Alpha = .76)


+ keyed Let bygones be bygones.
  Never seek vengeance.
  Allow others to make a fresh start.
  Believe that it is best to forgive and forget.
  Don't try to get even.
  Hate to see anyone suffer, even my worst enemy.
  Try to respond with understanding when someone treats me badly.



- keyed

Hold grudges.


Do not give anyone a second chance to hurt me.

Omitted Am unwilling to accept apologies.


Gratitude [Gra] (8 items; Alpha = .79)


+ keyed

Express my thanks to those who care about me.


Have been richly blessed in my life.

  Stop to count my blessings.
  Am an extremely grateful person.
  Feel thankful for what I have received in life.
  Feel a profound sense of appreciation every day.

- keyed

Do not see the need to acknowledge others who are good to me.


Find few things in my life to be grateful for.

Omitted Get chills when I hear about acts of great generosity.
  Don't make a big deal about gifts that I receive.


Hope/Optimism [Hop] (8 items; Alpha = .73)


+ keyed Look on the bright side.
  Can find the positive in what seems negative to others.
  Remain hopeful despite challenges.
  Will succeed with the goals I set for myself.
  Think about what is good in my life when I feel down.

- keyed 

Expect the worst.


Have no plan for my life five years from now.


Am not confident that my way of doing things will work out for the best.

Omitted Can clearly picture in my mind what I want to happen in my future.

Humor/Playfulness [Hum] (9 items; Alpha = .84)


+ keyed Try to tease my friends out of their gloomy moods.
  Use laughter to brighten the days of others.
  Try to have fun in all kinds of situations.
  Try to add some humor to whatever I do.
  Keep my sense of humor even in gloomy situations.
  Have a great sense of humor.

- keyed 

Am not known for my sense of humor.


Am not fun to be with.


Do not go out of my way to make others smile or laugh.

Omitted Believe that life is more of a playground than a battlefield.

Industry/Perseverance/Persistence [Ind] (8 items; Alpha = .81)


+ keyed Don't quit a task before it is finished.
  Am a goal-oriented person.
  Finish things despite obstacles in the way.
  Am a hard worker.
  Don't get sidetracked when I work.



- keyed

Don't finish what I start.


Give up easily.


Do not tend to stick with what I decide to do.

Omitted Only get what I want because I work hard for it.
  Make certain that my plans will work.


Integrity/Honesty/Authenticity [Int] (9 items; Alpha = .72)


+ keyed

Am trusted to keep secrets.

  Keep my promises.
  Believe that honesty is the basis for trust.
  Can be trusted to keep my promises.
  Am true to my own values.



- keyed

Lie to get myself out of trouble.


Am hard to understand.


Feel like an imposter.


Like to exaggerate my troubles.

Omitted Take pride in not exaggerating who or what I am.
  Am told that I am down to earth.
  Am told by friends that they do not really know who I am.

Judgment/Open-mindedness [Jud] (9 items; Alpha = .80)


+ keyed Try to identify the reasons for my actions.
  Make decisions only after I have all of the facts.
  Am valued by others for my objectivity.
  Am a firm believer in thinking things through.
  Weigh the pro's and the con's.
  Try to have good reasons for my important decisions.
  Am valued by my friends for my good judgment.



- keyed

Don't think about different possibilities when making decisions.


Don't tend to think things through critically.

Omitted Don't think about more possibilities than the one I like first.


Kindness/Generosity [Kin] (10 items; Alpha = .72)


+ keyed Am never too busy to help a friend.
  Go out of my way to cheer up people who appear down.
  Love to make other people happy.
  Helped a neighbor in the last month.
  Get as excited about the good fortunes of others as I am about my own.


Call my friends when they are sick.

  Love to let others share the spotlight.



- keyed Get impatient when others talk to me about their problems.


Try not to do favors for others.


Am only kind to others if they have been kind to me.


Leadership [Lea] (7 items; Alpha = .78)


+ keyed

Try to make sure everyone in a group feels included.  

  Am good at helping people work well together.
  Am told that I am a strong but fair leader.
  Try to make my group members happy.
- keyed Have difficulty getting others to work together.
  Am not good at taking charge of a group.


Am not good at planning group activities.

Omitted Treat everyone the same.
  Believe that our human nature brings us together to work for common goals.
  Believe that leaders should let everyone have a say in what the group does.


Love of Learning [Lov] (10 items; Alpha = .77)


+ keyed Go out of my way to attend educational events.
  Am thrilled when I learn something new.
  Look forward to the opportunity to learn and grow.
  Am a true life-long learner.
  Read all the time.
  Consult the library or the Internet immediately if I want to know something.
  Read a large variety of books.

- keyed

Don't like to learn new things.


Do not like to visit museums.


Don't read nonfiction books for fun.


Modesty/Humility [Mod] (9 items; Alpha = .70)


+ keyed Am humble about the good things that have happened to me.


Believe that others are drawn to me because I am humble.

  Don't act is if I'm a special person.
  Don't brag about my accomplishments.
  Am proud that I am an ordinary person.
  Don't call attention to myself.
  Would never be described as arrogant.

- keyed

Like to stand out in a crowd.


Like to talk about myself.

Omitted Feel that too much modesty gets a person in trouble.


Originality/Creativity [Ori] (8 items; Alpha = .85)


+ keyed Am able to come up with new and different ideas.
  Like to think of new ways to do things.
  Come up with new ways to do things.
  Am an original thinker.
  Have an imagination that stretches beyond that of my friends.



- keyed

Don't pride myself on being original.


Am not considered to have new and different ideas.


Have no special urge to do something original.

Omitted Tend to think of alternatives when someone tells me how to do something.
  Have recently found an original solution to a problem in my life.


Perspective/Wisdom [Per] (9 items; Alpha = .75)


+ keyed Have a broad outlook on what is going on.
  Have an excellent view of the world.
  Have been described as wise beyond my years.
  Have a mature view on life.
  Consider myself to be a wise person.


Am considered to be a wise person.


- keyed

Lose sight of what is most important in life.


Am not good at figuring out what really matters.


Am rarely consulted for advice by others.

Omitted Have never given bad advice to a friend.


Prudence [Pru] (9 items; Alpha = .73)


+ keyed Have never deliberately hurt anyone.


Cannot imagine lying or cheating.

  Believe it is always better to be safe than sorry.


Think before I speak.

  Follow the rules.
  Avoid activities that are physically dangerous.
  Keep straight right from wrong.


Make careful choices.


- keyed

Behave in unusual and strange ways.

Omitted Know that my friends consider me to be impulsive.
  Act before thinking through the consequences.
  Like taking risks.

Self-regulation/Self-control [Sel] (11 items; Alpha = .75)


+ keyed Have no trouble eating healthy foods.
  Am a highly disciplined person.
  Forego things that are bad for me in the long run even if they make me feel good in the short run.
  Can stay on a diet.
  Can always say "enough is enough."
- keyed Do not exercise on a regular basis.


Can't resist eating candy or cookies if they are around.


Am not very good at getting things done.


Let myself be taken over by urges to spend or eat too much.


Do my tasks only just before they need to be done.


Give in to my urges.

Omitted Can control my emotions.
  Feel that practice is as important as performance.


Social/Personal/Emotional Intelligence [Soc] (7 items; Alpha = .76)


+ keyed Am able to fit into any situation.
  Have the ability to make others feel interesting.
  Know what makes others tick.
  Get along well with people I have just met.
  Am good at sensing what others are feeling.
  Know what to say to make people feel good.

- keyed

Don't know how to handle myself in a new social situation.

Omitted Am very aware of my surroundings.
  Get puzzled by my own thoughts and feelings.
  Am taken advantage of by others.

Spirituality/Religiousness [Spi] (9 items; Alpha = .91)


+ keyed

Believe in a universal power or God.

  Am a spiritual person.
  Keep my faith even during hard times.
  Have spent at least 30 minutes in the last 24 hours in prayer or meditation.
  Am who I am because of my faith.
  Believe that each person has a purpose in life.
  Know that my beliefs make my life important.

- keyed

Do not practice any religion.


Do not believe in a universal power or a God.

Omitted Know that my life has no strong purpose.

Valor/Bravery/Courage [Val] (10 items; Alpha = .75)


+ keyed Have taken frequent stands in the face of strong opposition.
  Don't hesitate to express an unpopular opinion.
  Call for action while others talk.
  Can face my fears.
  Speak up in protest when I hear someone say mean things.


Am a brave person.

- keyed Avoid dealing with uncomfortable emotions.


Avoid dealing with awkward situations.


Do not stand up for my beliefs.


Don't speak my mind freely when there might be negative results.

Omitted Have overcome pain and disappointment.


Zest/Enthusiasm/Vitality [Zes] (9 items; Alpha = .78)


+ keyed Prefer to participate fully rather than view life from the sidelines.
  Don't approach things halfheartedly.
  Love what I do.
  Look forward to each new day.
  Canít wait to get started on a project.
  Can hardly wait to see what life has in store for me in the years ahead.


Awaken with a sense of excitement about the day's possibilities.


- keyed

Dread getting up in the morning.


Don't have much energy.



Omitted Am described as grumpy.

The IPIP representation of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS), or IPIP-VIA, is based on a preliminary version of the VIA-IS provided by Christopher Peterson in June 2001 and described in Peterson and Seligman (2003). The 240 items in the VIA-IS, plus 102 of Petersonís items that were not included in the VIA-IS, were revised to give them the standard format of IPIP items (short phrases with no leading pronoun).  Since the 2001 version, the VIA Institute on Character has revised the VIA-IS several times; the Institute provides the more recent versions of the VIA-IS to researchers upon request. The Institute's current VIA-IS assessment suite is available at: .


*Note.  Some scoring keys on this page differ slightly from the scoring keys used on the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample Data presented on the Harvard Dataverse archive, . Follow this link for a description of how those differences arose in the scale development process.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2003). Character strengths before and after September 11. Psychological Science, 14, 381-384.

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